RISK FACTORS 1.1. cigarette smoking 1.2. diabetes mellitus 1.3. low education attainment 1.4. genetic predispositions 2. Several studies indicate that may persons have a predisposal to gum disease. Smoking/Vaping: This is the strongest environmental risk factor for periodontal disease. In fact, most of the risk factors for gum disease are within your control. INTRODUCTION Bacteria cause periodontal disease, but other factors determine how severe that disease will become and how specific a patient responds to the therapy. DEFINITION 2.1. chronic inflammatory conditions of the gingiva, bone and ligament supporting the teeth 3. These factors can increase your risk of periodontal disease or make it worse once the infection has set in. J Periodontol. Table 1. Start studying PER 712 Risk factors for periodontal diseases: genetics. Chapter 3 History and Systemic Risk Factors for Periodontal Diseases Aims . One half of these individuals will develop the advanced stages of periodontal disease. During the event, he revealed that both diseases share a genetic basis involving the VAMP8 function. Periodontal disease is a complex infectious disease resulting from interplay of bacterial infection and host response to bacterial challenge, and the disease is modified by environmental, acquired risk factors and genetic susceptibility. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Smoking dries the mouth, which is an attractive environment for harmful bacteria. Genetic and heritable risk factors in periodontal disease. Identification of genetic risk factors for periodontitis and possible mechanisms of action. One third of the population have a genetic tendency to develop periodontal disease. According to the American Dental Association, genetics is a risk factor for developing gum disease. These responses are influenced by local, systemic, genetic and environmental risk factors. Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature Yousef A. AlJehani Dental Health Department, Colleg e of Applied Medical Sciences, K ing Saud University, P .O. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. 2005; 32 Suppl 6: 159-179. Genetic risk factor’s for Periodontal Disease Could my periodontal disease be genetic? Data . Individuals with periodontal disease had an increased risk of lung cancer; however, after adjustment for smoking and other risk factors, this association was no longer statistically significant. Periodontal diseases are multi-factorial, meaning that susceptibility to the disease involves genetic as well as environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and other lifestyle factors. Your genes play a major role in the onset and severity of periodontal diseases. For the last 20 years, the periodontal community has followed the classification of two distinct phenotypes of periodontitis: aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and chronic periodontitis (CP). Systemic risk factors and risk indicators for periodontal disease • Systemic risk factors include smoking, diabetes mellitus, race, genetic factors, male gender, polymorphonuclear (PMN) functional abnormalities, low economic status, low educational level, acquired systemic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and severe malnutrition ( Table 11.1 ). Destructive periodontal disease is a consequence of the interaction of genetic, environmental, host and micro- bial factors.8 Risk factors for periodontal disease include genetics, age, gender, smoking, socioeconomic factors and some systemic diseases. Smoking also can make treatment for gum disease less successful. Family studies suggest that susceptibility to the early onset forms of disease, particularly prepubertal and juvenile periodontitis, is, at least in part, influenced by host genotype. Gingivitis is a reversible condition whereas periodontitis is irreversible condition, in which along with inflammation of gingiva, destruction of tooth-supporting structure occurs. Genetics: Genetic risk factors influence one’s susceptibility and progression of gum disease. Family studies suggest that susceptibility to the early onset forms of disease, particularly prepubertal and juvenile periodontitis, is, at least in part, influenced by host genotype. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 3.1. dental plaque 3.2. microbial biofilm 3.3. immunopathogenesis Instead, environmental effects, including oral hygiene and regular dental visits , still play the primary role in determining overall risk. The risk factors for developing these diseases are prior history of periodontitis, poor oral hygiene, smoking, diabetes, implant cement beyond the margin of the crown, occlusal overload and genetic factors. contributions by genes that may modify periodontal disease expression.9 Other important factors, such as environmental (particularly smoking) and micro-bial agents (virulence factors), also modify disease risk and expression.3-5,17 Polymorphism The major genetic factors in complex disease models are not single mutations that dramatical- • A risk predictor/marker although associated with increased risk for disease, do not cause the disease. Risk factors of the gum disease ... medicines and medical condition of the person can also trigger gum disease. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. T he purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge of genetic risk factors for the periodontal diseases and to present updated and additional data from the Minnesota Twin Periodontal Study. 1,2. Sources . Implants in function for a significant number years can develop peri-implantitis. Risk factors for periodontal diseases include microbiologic factors, immunologic factors, environmental factors, and genetic factor. Although previous research has demonstrated an association between coronary artery disease and periodontal disease due to risk factors such as diabetes, there weren’t many that compared their genetic … There are a number of risk factors for gum disease, but smoking is the most significant. Periodontal disease was also significantly associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in men and with cancer of the corpus uteri in women. 11.Loos BG, John RP, Laine ML. The reason is that some risk factors for gum disease relate more to behavior than genetics or overall health. Periodontal disease increases with age; 70.1% of adults 65 years and older have periodontal disease” (CDC, 2015). J Clin Periodontol. The aims of this chapter are two-fold: first, to outline the key aspects of history taking in child, adolescent and young adult patients with periodontal problems; and secondly, to identify the principal systemic periodontal risk factors in these age groups that may be identified from the history. In analyses not accounting for genetic factors, participants with advanced periodontal disease at baseline had a higher incidence of total cancer compared with those without periodontal disease (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30, 1.69). The purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge of genetic risk factors for the periodontal diseases and to present updated and additional data from the Minnesota Twin Periodontal Study. This disease usually starts out as gingivitis, which is characterized by … The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. Genetic factors and periodontal disease 1. Gingivitis is the inflammation of gingiva. Genetic factors and heritable risk factors in periodontal disease: Highly sophisticated DNA analysis techniques have recently demonstrated that the transmission among family members can and does occur . Table 1 provides a simple classification system for these factors. Additional information from new technologies, such as micro-arrays and DNA-sequencing, should contribute to the identification of specific genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors that influence periodontitis susceptibility. Based on this most recent review, it seems that genetic factors play a significant, but far-from-overwhelming role in periodontal disease risk. Periodontal disease, like caries, is complex and multifactorial, but shares more of a direct link with overall health, so that risk factors such as smoking and diabetes can significantly contribute to its etiology. Within the domain of genetic risk factors for periodontitis, not only do certain genetic variations play a role, epigenetic changes in DNA are also involved. Periodontitis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease and both environmental and genetic factors play a major role in the progression of the disease with consequent tissue destruction around the dental roots, and alveolar bone is associated with systemic alterations such as diabetes , changes in the liver , cardiovascular diseases , and even osteoporosis . The numbers were significant in finding and led the authors to further research the linkage between factors such as genetics and epigenetics and susceptibility to periodontitis. Almost 70% of patients who have periodontal disease are smokers, current or past. Genetics. K eyWoRDs : Aggressive, chronic, genetic, gingivitis, periodontitis, polymorphism, single nucleotide, syndrome Objectives . Research proves that up to 30% of the population may be genetically susceptible to gum disease. 1994; 65: 479-488. • Risk indicator is used to describe a putative (or potential) risk factor identified to be associated with disease from case control or cross-sectional studies, but not yet confirmed in longitudinal or interventional studies. If you have a family history of gum disease, then you are more likely to have problems with your gums. Richa Sharma MDS 2nd yr Dept of Periodontology and Oral Implantology 2. • Genetic factors play a role in defining risk (Heritability estimated at about 30%) • Using the candidate gene approach, only a handful of polymorphisms have been validated in other studies (e.g., IL-1, IL-6, FcγR) • GWAS have not validated previous SNP associations (above) – Risk associated with any one variant likely small, ORs < 2 12.Michalowicz BS. on genetic risk factors and its influence for the various forms of periodontal disease. In fact, recent studies have shown that tobacco use may be one of the most significant risk factors and smokers are three times more likely to develop periodontal disease compared with non-smokers. ... Genetic tests are done to determine the susceptibility of a person to the gum disease. The most common risk factors for developing gum disease are: Genetic factors. But first, let’s discuss the risk factors that are not within your control. PERIODONTAL DISEASE by poofclam - 1. 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